Final Report: Legal-Institutional Instruments for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in the Mediterranean
In this third and final report of Mare Nostrum, we provide an overview of the project and all of its activities and findings, as well as a toolkit of alternative instruments. The report is in three parts:
Part I: An account of the project process; details of cross-border cooperation activities and findings; and a description of the capitalization initiatives which have been implemented or proposed through the course of the Mare Nostrum project, for improved management and implementation of ICZM principles.
Part II: A cross-national comparative analysis of the frameworks in the partner countries, with additional insights from other Mediterranean countries gleaned throughout the course of the project. Through evaluation of the ICZM Protocol, the national frameworks and local case studies, we have identified a set of criteria for comparison, to guide our comparative analysis. Through assessing those criteria, we can identify regulatory tools which are successful, as well as any implementation gaps between laws and regulations and the situation on the ground.
Part III: A toolkit of alternative instruments: A set of recommendations which might assist in minimizing or reducing the legal-institutional gaps in Mediterranean coastline management. Our recommendations span the supranational, national and local levels and are relevant to all countries – not just the countries in our study.
Click on the picture to download the full final report.
The second report of the EU-funded Mare Nostrum Project has identified the major impediments inhibiting Integrated Coast Zone Management (ICZM) implementation in countries across the Mediterranean Sea. The major challenges are outlined in case studies primarily from Spain, Malta, Greece and Israel included in the report. The document represents an important step for Mare Nostrum towards formulating strategies for improvement.
The main barriers include lack of cooperation among different government bodies, insufficient translation of regulations on paper into action, clientelism, a lack of political will to carry out reforms to update and enforce environmental legislation. In addition, a tendency to forgive developers for illegal construction and grant it legitimacy once it’s built, problems in clearly defining the public domain coastal setback, and loopholes and vagueness undermining existing legislation have all been identified as the main impediments.
Click on the picture to download the full second report.
Existing Knowledge on Legal-Institutional Frameworks for Coastline Management: The International, EU and National Levels
The first report of the Mare Nostrum Project compiles the country-specific legal-institutional reports of the project’s partners. The report provides information on coastal management programs, international instruments, and environmental issues affecting the Mediterranean.
Recognizing the key role of international law in promoting Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), the report reviews key international ICZM instruments, focusing on the Barcelona Convention’s 2008 ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean. The report reviews cutting-edge issues confronting the Mediterranean coastline’s environments relevant to Mediterranean countries. The coastal environments of the project’s partners are marked by rising pollution levels, overexploitation of natural resources, and loss of biodiversity – all direct results of intensive urbanization and escalating tourism. Meanwhile, the loss of agricultural land has led to degradation of ecosystems, soil erosion and the loss of fertile soils and a mounting demand for water. The country-specific legal-institutional reviews demonstrate that Mediterranean countries share many of the same impediments to successful implementation of coastal laws and policies, despite the variations in their laws, institutions, political regimes and cultures.
Click on the picture to download the full first report.